1). Define collective bargaining?
Ans. Collective bargaining is a process in which the representatives of the employer and of the employees meet and attempt to negotiate a contract governing the employer-employee union relationship. It is a rational process in which appeals to facts and to logic, reconciles conflicting interests in the light of common interests of both parties.
2). What type of activities are involved in collective bargaining?
Ans. A collective bargaining process generally consists of four types of activities: -
* Distributive bargaining: - It involves haggling over the distribution of surplus.
* Attitudinal bargaining: - This involves shaping and reshaping some attitudes like trust or distrust, friendliness or hostility between labor and management.
* Integrative structuring: - This involves negotiation of an issue on, which both parties may gain, or at least neither party loses.
* Intra-organisational bargaining:- This is type of maneuvering to achieve consensus with the workers and management.
3). What are objectives of collective bargaining?
Ans. The main objectives of collective bargaining are as follows:-
* To maintain cordial relation between the employer and employees.
* To ensure the participation of trade unions in industry.
* To promote industrial democracy.
* To avoid the need for government intervention as collective bargaining is a voluntary process.
4). What are the advantages of collective bargaining?
Ans. Collective bargaining offers following advantages:-
* Better understanding between employer and employees.
* Provide flexible means of adjusting wages and conditions of employment to changes in economic, social, technological and political environment.
* Establish the code of conduct.
* Better implementation of decision.
* Better awareness of economical and technical problems of industry.
5). What are the essential conditions for successful collective bargaining?
Ans. Collective bargaining can be effective as following:-
* A fair political climate.
* Spirit of compromise and reciprocity.
* Give recognition to representatives of trade unions.
* Fair labour policies.
* Problem solving attitude.
* Availability of data.
6). How collective bargaining emerged in India?
Ans. Collective bargaining has not made much head way particularly at industry and national levels due to of :-
* Lack of strong leader.
* Excessive dependence.
* Uncleared norms
* Conflicting interest.
But significance steps may be taken to make collective bargaining in India to be more effective.
* Legal provisions are provided.
* Workers education.
* Trade unions are formed.
* Government declared its policies, which encourage parties to settle their disputes.
* Compulsory adjudication is made.
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